Internet of Things

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When wireless is perfectly applied, the whole Earth will be converted into  huge brain, which in fact it is, all things being particles of a real and rhythmic whole [ . . . ] and the instruments through which we shall be able to do this will be amazingly simple compared with our present telephone. A man will be able to carry one in his vest pocket.

Nikola Tesla

Since the advent of internet, many have dreamed about connecting various electronic devices, gathering data and making decisions in real-time to achieve dramatic results. Internet of Things (IoT) is the manifestation of this dream. From basic Home Security to Plant monitoring, IoT is enabling development of disruptive solutions.

While there are different architecture proposed for Internet of Things, we consider the five layer architecture model for IOT.

01. Data Sensors

Data sensor layer grabs data from the environment in which the sensor is placed. The sensor could be a video camera, thermal camera, light sensor, audio sensor, heart-beat tracker, temperature sensor, etc.  Data sensors connect with Data Sink via internet.

02. Data Gateway

Data Gateway enables the data sensors to send the data to data sink. Data Gateway takes care of communication between sensors and data sink (storage server). The easiest mode of communication is Data sensors communicating via APIs but in real-time situations, the communication can be satellite communication, NFC, WAN, Bluetooth, SMS or any custom communication protocol. Data Gateway also takes care of routing of data.

03. Data Sink

Data sink layer consists of a storage server, where all the data obtained from the sensors are stored.

04. Data Analyser

Data analyser consists of data processing tools that analyse the sensor data stored in data sink.  Data Analyser identifies actionable intelligence based on the patterns available in the data collected by sensors.

05. Processed Data Viewer

The Processed Data Viewer provides the necessary interfaces to view the processed data obtained from Data Analyser.

Few Basic examples of IoT Applications

Smart Cities

• Tracking of conditions of the City Roads, Metro Train tracks, Drainage Systems, etc.
• Traffic management in real-time
• Tracking of power, gas & water distribution failures
• CCTV monitoring for suspicious activities

Healthcare

• Remote monitoring of health vitals of the patients
• Tracking of room temperature, smell and oxygen levels in hospitals
• Tracking movements of eldering patients with short-term memory loss
• Providing additional guidance via remote tracking to disabled patients

Agriculture

• Tracking of domestic animals via RFID tags
• Monitoring of crops for various infections
• Monitoring of the water levels within the fields
• Crop logistics - Tracking of vehicle movement

Heartbeat track for Patients with Heart Problems

We did a proof of concept app that allows doctors to track the heartbeat of the patients with heart problems. The doctors can get alerts if the heartbeat of the patients doesn't stay within the normal range. We are using Azure IOT toolkit as a Data Sink and Data Analyser.